Editorâ€™s Note: Although some Buddhist concepts are explained here, the thrust of the article is to describe the Western take on Buddhism via the New Age and the secular culture, and how some of its practices and concepts, especially Mindfulness, have migrated to the West, particularly the United States. In order to make a distinction between a generic understanding of the term mindfulness and the specific term used for the practice based on Buddhism, â€œMindfulnessâ€ in this article will be spelled with a capital â€œM.â€ (This first appears in the Summer/Fall 2014 issue of the Midwest Christian Outreach Journal beginning on page 6)
We are here to awaken from our illusion of separateness.1Quotes from Thich Nhat Hanh, https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/9074.Th_ch_Nh_t_H_nh and http://www.quoteswave.com/picture-quotes/372706
Developing wisdom is a process of bringing our minds into accordance with the way things really are. Through this process we gradually remove the incorrect perceptions of reality we have had since the beginningless time.2The Dalai Lama, An Open Heart, Boston/New York/London: Little, Brown and Company, 2001, 86
Be lamps unto yourselves.3Reputed to be the last words of Buddha (though some sources dispute this), http:// www.sacred-texts.com/bud/btg/btg94.htm
Mindfulness is a Buddhist concept and practice. Yet we now find Mindfulness taught and practiced in schools, businesses, hospitals, and prisons. People as diverse as educators, health workers, psychologists, corporation honchos, and clergyman advocate it. Its popularity is increasing with rapid-fire speed. Therefore, Christians need to know what it is, how it is being promoted, and if there is any conflict with the Christian faith.
The Meaning of Mindfulness
Mindfulness is a meditative practice and an outlook on life and reality that ideally results from the type of meditation designed to cultivate the Buddhist concept of â€œdetachment.â€4Detachment for the westerner, usually implies not caring or indifference; whereas, according to Buddhist teaching, it is learning to disconnect from desire or grasping at this world and false views of reality which keep one in the cycle of rebirth Mindfulness is often defined as a moment-by-moment, non-judgmental awareness of the present.
Why is â€œdetachment.â€ necessary, and what does that mean? To understand, we should know these essential teachings of Buddhism:
1. Life in this world is suffering.
2. Suffering is caused by desire for and attachment to this world, which will continue the cycle of rebirths into this world
3. The remedy for suffering is to cultivate detachment and thereby to reach enlightenment, and thus, escape rebirth.
4. The final goal is nirvanaâ€”a state of release from the cycle of rebirth and suffering. Nirvana means to extinguish.
The world, as it is perceived in Buddhist thinking, is not substantively real. The individual self has no permanent reality (it is called the â€œno-self,â€ â€œanatman,â€ or â€œanattaâ€), and what one recognizes as the individual self is based on faulty perceptions (this is sometimes called the â€œconventional selfâ€). According to this view, feelings, thoughts, physical sensations, and sense of identity have fooled us into thinking we each exist as an individual. Continuing to believe this allegedly keeps us trapped in this life and the cycle of rebirth.
Desire, which is a grasping at or attachment to this world, is the cause of suffering; and so â€œdetachmentâ€ must be cultivated, mainly through Mindfulness. Moreover, since the mind is part of this nominal reality, thoughts are in the way of realizing the true nature of reality and self. Mindfulness, as a meditation practice, is the tool by which one sees beyond or in between thoughts as a process of awakening to truth. The promotion of Mindfulness often includes the commonly heard maxim, â€œBe in the present,â€ since the goal includes detaching from past and future.
Practicing mindfulness as moment-to-moment, nonjudgmental awareness supposedly prepares one for a breakthrough in perceptionâ€”an awakening to the realization that ultimate reality is formlessness devoid of any form or structure (â€œsunyata,â€ usually translated as â€œemptinessâ€). Mindfulness is particularly emphasized in Zen Buddhism and, aside from TM (Transcendental Meditation), is the Eastern meditation practice that has most deeply penetrated the West.
Mindfulness meditation is a technique of sitting still (though there is also a walking meditation), observing the breath, being aware solely of the present moment and learning to let thoughts pass by without entertaining them. Because there is no permanent content to the present moment since it comes and goes, eventually, a state of â€œno-thinkingâ€ is reached. The goal is to divorce the mind and thinking process from oneâ€™s observation so that the meditator realizes he is not his thoughts, and eventually understands the â€œIâ€ observing the thoughts (called the â€œWitnessâ€) is not the conventional self, but rather, it is the â€œuniversalâ€ orÂ â€œBuddha-selfâ€ (terms vary). This Buddha-self is the â€œBuddha natureâ€ of the universe, which is the only permanent reality.
For many years, this writer attempted to incorporate Mindfulness into her life prior to becoming a Christian, and I can attest to its power in altering oneâ€™s worldview and conforming oneâ€™s thinking to embrace Buddhist concepts.
The Chattering Monkey
How can an anti-individualistic worldview worm its way into a highly individualized culture as exists in the United States? This happens slowly through Buddhist meditation, which conditions the mind through employment of certain terminologies and familiar terms, but which have been redefined using Buddhist concepts.
You might notice the term â€œmonkey mindâ€ popping up here and there. In promoting Mindfulness, the thinking mind is targeted as a â€œchattering monkey.â€ Thoughts are the chatter, and meditation is used to tame and silence this â€œmonkey mind,â€ so that it can become â€œBuddha mind.â€ As one source puts it:
Often in meditation, that monkey mind doesnâ€™t transform into a peaceable primate, but continues to scurry about, distracting attention. Indeed, it is common for thoughts to appear to increase in intensity during concentrated meditation practice. This is either because whilst in the confines of the practice the monkey mind reacts with increased activity, or because in focused meditation thoughts are â€œlit upâ€ and are noticed more than they normally are.5â€œMonkey Mind & BuddhaMind,â€ 2-28-10, http://buddhaspace.blogspot.com/2010/02/monkeymind-buddha-mind.html Thoughts are treated as an independent activity, divorced from oneâ€™s true selfâ€”the â€œBuddha-self.â€ The temporal world, including the mind, is part of a â€œrising and fallingâ€6Rising and falling is a term describing the Buddhist view that we are caught in the web of thinking and feeling which reinforces our identification with our mind and self thereby continuing a false perception of reality which is not substantively real. One must transcend this rising and falling through meditation practice.
Meditation trains the person to watch thoughts so that the meditator does not attach to the thoughts and follow them. Eventually, the space between thoughts widens until there are no thoughts, and â€œno mindâ€ is reached. The site continues:
Buddha Mind is our real nature, the unconditioned â€œMindâ€ – and words are metaphors here, remember – that lies beneath the conditioned monkey mind that is interdependent with the world with which it interacts.7â€œMonkey Mind & Buddha Mind,â€ 2-28-10, http://buddhaspace.blogspot.com/2010/02/monkey mind-buddha-mind.html
Phrases such as â€œimpermanence,â€ â€œrising and falling,â€ â€œbeing, not doing,â€ â€œmonkey mind,â€ â€œchattering mind,â€ and others are appearing more frequently in literature and other media, including Smartphone apps, that give advice on reducing stress. This denigration of thinking portrays the mind as the problem and thoughts as a source of confusion. Moreover, when such terms become more familiar and popular, the concepts attached to them also tend to become more widely accepted over time. There is a prevailing assumption that we cannot truly function nor have any peace unless we practice this type of meditation.
Mindfulness meditation is, therefore, the Buddhist way to tame the so-called â€œchattering mindâ€ and uncover the silent â€œBuddha-mindâ€ underneath all the â€œrising and falling.â€ It was not designed for stress reduction or to be a trendy dabbling for harried Westerners. It is rigorously religious and strictly spiritual.
The Secularization of Mindfulness
Several people have pushed Mindfulness as a concept and practice in the United States. They canâ€™t deny its religious basis, yet they present it as a secular method. One of the most influential, Zen Buddhist Jon Kabat-Zinn (b. 1944), whose PhD is in Molecular Biology, runs the Center for Mindfulness (formerly the Stress Reduction Clinic), which he founded in 1979 at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Kabat-Zinnâ€™s stress-reduction and Mindfulness programâ€”MBSR (Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction)â€”has spread to over 200 hospitals and medical centers around the country. One news article reports:
Kabat-Zinn is reluctant to use the word â€œspiritualâ€ to describe the approach to healthy living that he promotes, characterizing it instead as being â€œgrounded in common sense.â€
â€œI donâ€™t have to use the word â€˜spiritual,â€™â€ he said. â€œPart of it is the power of silence and stillness. And part of that power is the power of healing that happens when you move from the domain of doing to being. Itâ€™s transformative.â€8Los Angeles Times, â€œFully experiencing the present: a practice for everyone, religious or not,â€ Nomi Morris,Â 10-2-2010, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2010-oct-02-la-me-1002-beliefs-meditation-20101002-story.html
In a self-contradictory statement, he said:
Mindfulness, the heart of Buddhist meditation, is at the core of being able to live life as if it really matters. It has nothing to do with Buddhism. It has to do with freedom.9Los Angeles Times, â€œFully experiencing the present: a practice for everyone, religious or not,â€ Nomi Morris,Â 10-2-2010, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2010-oct-02-la-me-1002-beliefs-meditation-20101002-story.html – italics added
So, Mindfulness is â€œthe heart of Buddhist meditationâ€ but â€œhas nothing to do with Buddhism.â€ Kabat-Zinn himself is no secular person. He was a student of Zen Master Seung Sahn and is a founding member of Cambridge Zen Center. Another influential non-secular person in Mindfulness is Thich Nhat Hanh (b. 1926), a Zen Buddhist monk from Vietnam, who lectures around the country as a Mindfulness enthusiast, and whose books promoting Mindfulness have enjoyed great success in the West.
Zen Buddhist Peter Senge (considered by many to be the successor to influential management guru Peter Drucker) incorporates Zen Buddhist concepts such as being â€œtrapped in structuresâ€ and â€œtrapped in the theater of our thoughtsâ€ in his popular book The Fifth Discipline. Additionally, he recommends â€œsome form of meditationâ€ such as â€œcontemplative prayerâ€ or a method to quiet â€œthe conscious mindâ€ as well as suggesting â€œregular meditative practice.â€10Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline, NY: Doubleday; Revised & Updated edition, March 21, 2006, 153, 169,Â 224
Senge is a familiar figure on the New Age landscape as well, appearing in several interviews on the New Age website Enlighten Next and on the website of New Age philosopher Andrew Cohen.
Additionally, Buddhist terms loaded with spiritual meaning are being used as though they have only a secular meaning. The word â€œcompassionâ€ is being joined with the term â€œMindfulnessâ€ to promote Mindfulness in schools and elsewhere. Buddhist teachers make frequent use of the word â€œcompassionâ€ (this is very common with the Dalai Lama), but the problem is that non-Buddhists do not know all the implications of this term. â€œCompassionâ€ in Buddhism is not simply having empathy or care for people. Compassion includes the Buddhist view that all non-human beings (called â€œsentient beingsâ€) are in need of rebirth as humans, because only humans can attain enlightenment. Since rebirth can also send a human into a non-human state,11Some Buddhist sources may describe non-human states as consisting of several types of Buddhas, disciples of Buddha, â€œand thenÂ heavenly beings (superhuman [angels?]), human beings, Asura (fighting spirits), beasts, Preta (hungry ghosts), and depraved men (hellish beings). Now, these ten realms may be viewed as unfixed, nonobjective worlds, as mental and spiritual states of mind. These states of mind are created by menâ€™s thoughts, actions, and words. In other words, psychological states,â€ from â€œOn Reincarnation,â€ by Takashi Tsuji, http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/reincarnation.htm. These states are also commonly called the â€œsix realmsâ€ of â€œheaven, human beings, Asura, hungry ghost, animal and hell.â€ from â€œBuddhist View on Death and Rebirth,â€ by Thich NguyenTang, http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma5/viewdeath.html the Buddhist must spread Buddhist teachings and work at his own enlightenment in order to help advance Buddhist truths so that all can eventually be liberated from the cycle of rebirth. In Buddhism, Buddhist enlightenment is the only way for such liberation. â€œCompassionâ€ in Buddhist thinking, therefore, is a religious term, not a secular one, especially when used in the context of Mindfulness.
Stress is the New Bogeyman
At the urging of the Dalai Lama through his Mind and Life Institute, neuroscientists have been doing studies on the brains of meditators.12â€œMindfulness Meditation Training Changes Brain Structure in 8 Weeks,â€ 1-21-11, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110121144007.htm A study with only 16 people showed a â€œdecrease in gray matter in the amygdala, a region of the brain that affects fear and stress, which correlated with a change in self-reported stress levels.â€13The Washington Post, â€˜Meditation and mindfulness may give your brain a boost,â€ Carolyn Butler, 2-14-11, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/meditation-and-mindfulness-may-give-your-brain-a-boost/2011/02/14/AB6DLqQ_story.html ; study reported at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840837/ Whether this decrease really indicates stress reduction, temporary or permanent, is not known. Showing cause-and-effect in the brain is difficult with something as vague and varied as meditation (there are a variety of ways to meditate). Moreover, there are other ways to reduce stress.
Several corporationsâ€”such as Google, Target, and General Millsâ€”offer Mindfulness training and seminars to their employees as a stress-reduction program, as do business schools Claremont Graduate University and Harvard Business School.14The Huffington Post, â€œMindfulness in the Corporate World: How Businesses Are Incorporating the Eastern Practice,â€ 8-29-12, updated 1-7-13, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/29/mindfulness-businesses-corporate-employees-meditation_n_1840690.html ; The Wall Street Journal, â€œBusiness Skills and Buddhist Mindfulness,â€ Beth Gardiner 4-3-12,Â http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303816504577305820565167202
There has been a great effort on the part of alternative-treatment practitioners to emphasize stress in the culture, which then allows them to advocate their particular remedies for it. Mindfulness therapy is now extensively used in psychology and psychotherapy.
Has anyone considered that instead of taking time to learn a stress-reduction technique, it would be more valuable and practical to use that time playing board games, strolling in a park, relaxing to soft music, reading a good book, taking a nap, developing a hobby, or one of many other pleasant activities that people enjoy? Studies done on many more than 16 people have shown that such activities lower blood pressure and bring down heart rates.
Mindfulness is the New Education
At least two articles in Scholastic Parent and Child Magazine (October 2011 and May 2014) have featured and promoted Mindfulness for children. The 2011 article, â€œItâ€™s All In Your Mind,â€ by Lynne Ticknor, promotes Mindfulness, along with herÂ brief interview of Goldie Hawn and her Buddhist-based MindUP™ program for schools. Hawn, like many other celebrities, is a devotee of Mindfulness. The article refers to Mindfulness as â€œbased in the philosophy of Buddhismâ€ and quickly adds,Â â€œBut itâ€™s not religionâ€ and â€œthere are no spiritual overtones.â€15Scholastic Parent and Child Magazine, â€œItâ€™s All In Your Mind,â€ Lynne Ticknor, October, 2011
Susan Kaiser Greenland, the author of The Mindful Child, has been teaching Mindfulness and promoting it in inner-city schools through her foundationâ€”Inner Kids Foundation. In an interview, Greenland said this about the link of mindfulness to Buddhism:
The Buddhist foundations/applications of the secular mindfulness work can be a great strength rather than an Achilles heel if reframed as a well-established, evidence-based training protocol shown to reduce stress, improve immune function, develop executive function and attention with measurable results when it comes to changes not just in the health and wellness of the individual but also in the likelihood of an individual who has undergone that training in engaging in social, compassionate action.16â€œMindfulness With Children,â€ Jonathan S. Kaplan, Ph.D., 10-3-11, http://urbanmindfulness.org/2011/10/mindfulness-with-children-an-interview-with-susan-kaiser-greenland/
She acknowledges that Buddhism is the foundation of mindfulness but implies that if mindfulness can be â€œreframedâ€ using terms related to mental health and stress reduction, then the messy issue of religion can be circumvented.
The Scholasticsâ€™ article states that children are taught to focus on their breathing, â€œan age-old exercise in finding calm and balance â€“ or their â€˜center.â€™â€17Scholastic Parent and Child Magazine, â€œItâ€™s All In Your Mind,â€ Lynne Ticknor, October, 2011 One photograph in the print edition shows a mother and child sitting in the lotus position18Lotus position is a posture from Yoga that requires sittingÂ with oneâ€™s legs crossed in a specific manner that is considered meditative with eyes closed. Another shows two young children (about age 6) sitting side-by-side in a lotus position with eyes closed. Clearly, there is more than just breathing going on.
Zen Buddhism is primarily a mixture of Taoism and Buddhism called Chan (Zen in Japan) and came from China. Controlling the breath is part of controlling and balancing â€œchiâ€â€” (viewed as) a universal life forceâ€”thus achieving health and longevity (in Taoist thinking). This idea about the breath is very similar to the Taoist teaching that one must base oneâ€™s self in the flow of â€œchiâ€ and, thus, balance the two forces of â€œyin and yang.â€
Even if the children are not doing a full-on Mindfulness meditation (which would be difficult for most children), they are being introduced to it, taught how to do it, and told it is the way to deal with their feelings. Being told that this is how to deal withÂ anger or fear may also give the subtle message that emotions are a bad thing.
Mindfulness, as taught in schools, is communicating to a child that he should always be calm, always clear-headed, and always in control. This certainly could convey a negative message to more emotional children and to children with various psychological, neurological, and emotional problems and make them self-conscious about their feelings.
Some educators are using visualization, meditation CDs and an iPad or iPhone app called BellyBio, â€œthat helps regulate breathing rhythms.â€19Scholastic Parent and Child Magazine, â€œItâ€™s All In Your Mind,â€ Lynne Ticknor, October, 2011 Â Guided visualization is a form of hypnosis; so this should cause alarm if, indeed, this form of visualization is being used.
Interestingly, Scholastic is the parent company of MindUP™, the program started by actress and practicing Buddhist Goldie Hawn. Scholastic is a global enterprise, creating and distributing:
… educational and entertaining materials and products for use in school and at home, including childrenâ€™s books, magazines, technology-based products, teacher materials, television programming, feature film, videos and toys. Scholastic distributes its products and services through a variety of channels, including proprietary school-based book clubs, school-based book fairs, retail stores, schools, libraries and television networks; and Scholastic.com.20â€œAbout Scholastic,â€ http://www.scholastic.com/aboutscholastic/peoplehistory.htm
The advocacy of Mindfulness by a corporate giant such as Scholastic is a prime example of how Eastern beliefs are being endorsed and disseminated in the culture. Is this not a type of therapy being foisted on children without parental consent?
Are children, especially in the lower grades, able to handle such information? Should children be made to worry about their emotions? At the very least, using Mindfulness should be a decision for a parent, not for the school or educators.
Parents would benefit from carefully monitoring what is going on in their childâ€™s classroom. They need to ask for information on all the activities taking place in the class. Parents can talk to the teacher or principal and ask to opt their child out based on religious views. Even if the school denies that Mindfulness is religious, the parent can state that it conflicts with his or her faith.
The Mind and God
Whereas thoughts and thinking get in the way of spiritual enlightenment according to Mindfulness, God tells us that thinking and reason are part of how God wired us, since man is made in His image and having a mind is part of that. Reason and thought are rooted in Godâ€™s character.
And He said to him, â€œYou shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.â€ (Matt. 22:37, emphasis added).
Moreover, the world is Godâ€™s creation. It is not a mere illusory phenomenon of â€œrising and falling.â€ The world was created good, became corrupt through manâ€™s sin; but one day, the world will be restored.21Genesis 1, 3; Romans 5; 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1
Any teaching that the mind or thinking is bad or prevents spiritual understanding is at odds with the nature of God as a Being of intelligence and reason. In giving us His Word in the 66 books of the Bible, He expects thinking and reasoning since language cannot function without them. Using the term â€œchattering mindâ€ or â€œmonkey mindâ€ denigrates the mind God gave us.
Should You Practice Mindfulness?
If one practices Mindfulness meditation on a fairly regular basis (not even necessarily every day), that person may eventually adopt the worldview behind it, leading one to believe the process of â€œdetachmentâ€ is at work. However, since the self is real, there can be no true â€œdetachment;â€ therefore, no liberation or true peace results from Mindfulness.
Buddhism has no supreme God, no mind, and no individual self. Ultimate reality is sunyata, a term loosely translated as â€œthe voidâ€ or â€œemptiness,â€ and refers to the Buddhist concept of ultimate reality of formlessness from which all allegedly has arisen. Mindfulness rests on the belief the world is full of â€œrising and falling,â€ and peace comes with the cessation of â€œrising and falling.â€ But there can be no joy or peace in formlessness, because the self is not there, since there is no self.
If you are a Christian, the basis, rationale, and goal of Mindfulness is in complete conflict with a Christian worldview and with the reality presented by God in his Word. Mindfulness has nothing in common with biblical meditation, which is thoughtful contemplation and pondering of Godâ€™s Word; nor is it biblical prayer.
Biblical meditation and prayer do not intend to go beyond thoughtâ€”either to achieve a mystical oneness with God or to â€œhearâ€ from God. Prayer in the Bible is always presented as verbal praise, petition, confession, and expression of gratitude to God.
Furthermore, the concept of needing â€œdetachmentâ€ goes against biblical teaching that we should remember what God has done, and vividly keep before us Christâ€™s Atonement on the cross, His bodily resurrection, and His return. There are many desires that are good; and desire to know God more deeply through prayer, Bible study, and worship nourishes believers in Christ. There is no need to fear attachment or good desires. Furthermore, true peace comes through reconciliation with God through faith in Christ, not by a manmade technique such as meditation.
The teaching of Mindfulness and the teaching of Christianity do not mesh and cannot co-exist.Î©
Before trusting Christ, Marcia Montenegro was a professional astrologer and was involved in Eastern and New Age practices for many years. Through her ministry, Christian Answers for the New Age, Marcia speaks around the country and on radio and writes on New Age and occult topics. She has a Masters in Religion from Southern Evangelical Seminary, Charlotte, NC, and serves as a missionary with Fellowship International Mission, Allentown, PA. Based in Arlington, VA, she is the mother of an adult son and the author of SpellBound: The Paranormal Seduction of Today’s Kids, (Cook, 2006). She is also co-author of Richard Rohr and the Enneagram Secret (MCOI Publishing, 2020) with Don and Joy Veinot You can find her online at: CANA or on Facebook at Christian Answers for the New Age
Â© 2022, Midwest Christian Outreach, Inc All rights reserved. Excerpts and links may be used if full and clear credit is given with specific direction to the original content.
|↑1||Quotes from Thich Nhat Hanh, https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/9074.Th_ch_Nh_t_H_nh and http://www.quoteswave.com/picture-quotes/372706|
|↑2||The Dalai Lama, An Open Heart, Boston/New York/London: Little, Brown and Company, 2001, 86|
|↑3||Reputed to be the last words of Buddha (though some sources dispute this), http:// www.sacred-texts.com/bud/btg/btg94.htm|
|↑4||Detachment for the westerner, usually implies not caring or indifference; whereas, according to Buddhist teaching, it is learning to disconnect from desire or grasping at this world and false views of reality which keep one in the cycle of rebirth|
|↑5||â€œMonkey Mind & BuddhaMind,â€ 2-28-10, http://buddhaspace.blogspot.com/2010/02/monkeymind-buddha-mind.html|
|↑6||Rising and falling is a term describing the Buddhist view that we are caught in the web of thinking and feeling which reinforces our identification with our mind and self thereby continuing a false perception of reality|
|↑7||â€œMonkey Mind & Buddha Mind,â€ 2-28-10, http://buddhaspace.blogspot.com/2010/02/monkey mind-buddha-mind.html|
|↑8||Los Angeles Times, â€œFully experiencing the present: a practice for everyone, religious or not,â€ Nomi Morris,Â 10-2-2010, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2010-oct-02-la-me-1002-beliefs-meditation-20101002-story.html|
|↑9||Los Angeles Times, â€œFully experiencing the present: a practice for everyone, religious or not,â€ Nomi Morris,Â 10-2-2010, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2010-oct-02-la-me-1002-beliefs-meditation-20101002-story.html – italics added|
|↑10||Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline, NY: Doubleday; Revised & Updated edition, March 21, 2006, 153, 169,Â 224|
|↑11||Some Buddhist sources may describe non-human states as consisting of several types of Buddhas, disciples of Buddha, â€œand thenÂ heavenly beings (superhuman [angels?]), human beings, Asura (fighting spirits), beasts, Preta (hungry ghosts), and depraved men (hellish beings). Now, these ten realms may be viewed as unfixed, nonobjective worlds, as mental and spiritual states of mind. These states of mind are created by menâ€™s thoughts, actions, and words. In other words, psychological states,â€ from â€œOn Reincarnation,â€ by Takashi Tsuji, http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/reincarnation.htm. These states are also commonly called the â€œsix realmsâ€ of â€œheaven, human beings, Asura, hungry ghost, animal and hell.â€ from â€œBuddhist View on Death and Rebirth,â€ by Thich NguyenTang, http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma5/viewdeath.html|
|↑12||â€œMindfulness Meditation Training Changes Brain Structure in 8 Weeks,â€ 1-21-11, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110121144007.htm|
|↑13||The Washington Post, â€˜Meditation and mindfulness may give your brain a boost,â€ Carolyn Butler, 2-14-11, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/meditation-and-mindfulness-may-give-your-brain-a-boost/2011/02/14/AB6DLqQ_story.html ; study reported at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840837/|
|↑14||The Huffington Post, â€œMindfulness in the Corporate World: How Businesses Are Incorporating the Eastern Practice,â€ 8-29-12, updated 1-7-13, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/29/mindfulness-businesses-corporate-employees-meditation_n_1840690.html ; The Wall Street Journal, â€œBusiness Skills and Buddhist Mindfulness,â€ Beth Gardiner 4-3-12,Â http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303816504577305820565167202|
|↑15, ↑17, ↑19||Scholastic Parent and Child Magazine, â€œItâ€™s All In Your Mind,â€ Lynne Ticknor, October, 2011|
|↑16||â€œMindfulness With Children,â€ Jonathan S. Kaplan, Ph.D., 10-3-11, http://urbanmindfulness.org/2011/10/mindfulness-with-children-an-interview-with-susan-kaiser-greenland/|
|↑18||Lotus position is a posture from Yoga that requires sittingÂ with oneâ€™s legs crossed in a specific manner that is considered meditative|
|↑20||â€œAbout Scholastic,â€ http://www.scholastic.com/aboutscholastic/peoplehistory.htm|
|↑21||Genesis 1, 3; Romans 5; 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1|